Vacuum Feedthroughs, Heating Elements, and Custom Process Heaters for Aerospace, University Research, Semiconductor, Medical and OEM Applications

Electric Heating Element Application and Engineering Reference Guide

Applying and specifying electric heating elements can be complicated. Make the job easier by downloading our handy reference guide (courtesy of Backer Hotwatt). The reference guide includes many of the electrical, mechanical, and physical properties you'll need to know when calculating wattage, evaluating maximum watt densities, and selecting proper heater placement.


  • Wattage Calculation Formulas and Examples
  • Properties of Metals
  • Properties of Non-Metallic Solids
  • Properties of Liquids and Gases
  • Suggested Watt Densities
  • Estimates of Wattage Required
  • Guide for Heat Losses
  • Suggested Sheath Materials
  • Thermal Systems
  • Installation
  • Ohms Law
  • Wiring Diagrams
  • Mathematical Conversions
  • Wire, Cable and Current Capacities
  • Wire Gage Data
  • Pipe Sizes and Threads
  • Resistance Wire - Current vs. Temperature

Chart of Watt Density and Operating Temperature Guidelines for Various Materials

The information presented in this chart is intended as a guideline. Adjustments may be necessary should variations occur in heat transfer, flow rates, and temperatures.


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